Ancient Macedonia was just a small mountainous area of Northern Greece and part of today's Bulgaria. In 338BCE, the Macedonian king Philip II, took control of Greece, setting the pace for things to come.
In 336BCE, he was succeeded by his son Alexander, who proceeded to conquer a vast swathe of territory across the area of modern Turkey, Iraq & Iran by defeating the Persian Empire, and Alexander's Macedonian & Greek armies reached as far as the Indus Valley of India.
He then seized Egypt and made one of his generals, called Ptolemy the new pharaoh. Alexander died in 323BCE from a fever in Babylon at the height of his powers.
But the Empire he had built for the Macedonians & Greeks, around his own dynamic personality, quickly fell apart of his young death, with Alexander gone, his generals split to become various war-lords, ruling different parts of Alexander's legacy.
Along with the rest of Greece, Macedonian fell to Rome in 146BCE, with Egypt & Asia Minor following afterwards.
Reference used : Athildas Coel & Guy de la Bedoyere.
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