THE LEVANT

THE LEVANT


A VERY BRIEF INTRO TO THE LEVANT
Known as The Cradle of Civilization, The Fertile Crescent, The Levant is a fascinating region to explore!
The Levant is (generally) thought to refer to the lands "...west of the Zagros mountains, south of the Taurus Mountains and north of the Sinai peninsula" & is roughly where Israel, Lebanon, part of Syria, and western Jordan are today.
"...the kingdoms of Israel, Ammon, Moab, Judah, Edom, and Aram; and the Phoenician and Philistine states. Important cities include Jerusalem, Jericho, Petra, Beersheba, Rabbath-Ammon, Ashkelon, Tyre, and Damascus."
Source #1: Thought Co. - Maps of The Levant
*PLEASE EXPLORE THE FORUMS & TOPICS BELOW WHICH WILL GO INTO MORE DEPTH ABOUT EACH NATION, STATE OR CULTURES WITHIN.
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  • This forum has 14 topics, 26 replies, and was last updated by Ziyi.
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    • MESOPOTAMIA

      Mesopotamia is a very historical region of Western Asia situated within the River Tigris & the River Euphrates, in the Northern Part is the historical Fertile Crescent. The Sumerians & Akkadians, including Assyrians & the Babylonians, dominated Mesopotamia.
      From the very beginning of written records, 3,100BCE, to the fall of Babylon in 539BCE, when the ancient settlement was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire. In 332BCE, Babylon fell to the Greeks & Macedonians lead by Alexander the Great, after the warrior's death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire.
      In the 7th century BCE, the Persian & Medes kingdoms fell under the domination of the Assyria Empire, based in Northern Mesopotamia, under King Cyaxares, the Medes & Persians entered into an alliance with the Babylonian ruler Nabopolassar, as well as the fellow Scythians & Cimmerians, the coalition together attacked the Assyrian Empire.
      The civil war ravaged the Assyrian Empire between 616 - 605BCE, thus freeing their respective people from the yoke of domination.
      Phoenicia, from the ancient Greek, was a ancient Semitic-speaking Mediterranean civilisation that originated in the Levant, specifically the Lebanon, which in those days included Northern Israel & Southern Syria.
      Its colonies later reached to the Western Mediterranean, such as Cadiz, in today's Spain and the most notable Carthage in North Africa. The Phoenician civilisation spread across the Mediterranean between 1,500 - 300BCE.
      Reference used : Hacob Serkis & Beric Ychen.
      "Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. It has been identified as having "inspired some of the most important developments in human history, including the invention of the wheel, the planting of the first cereal crops and the development of cursive script, mathematics, astronomy and agriculture."
      "The Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire. It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC, and after his death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire."
      Source #1: Wikipedia - Mesopotamia
      Source #2:***
      Source #3:***
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    • PHOENICIA

      The Phoenicians & The Carthaginians Civilizations.
      Phoenicia was where the coast of Lebanon & Syria are today, at the Eastern end of the Mediterranean . The Phoenicians were brilliant sea-farers, which incidentally the Romans never were, and one story is that they might have sailed around the North Coast of Africa.
      Major traders, the Phoenicians shipped their products of cloth, dye and timber, everywhere they could and set up coastal colonies all around the Mediterranean, including Spain, Malta and Sicily. The most important settlement was Carthage, which became Rome's most deadly maritime rival.
      Founded by the ninth century BCE, in what is modern day Tunisia on the North Coast of Africa, Carthage's wealth and influence spread North to Sicily & the Italian mainland, providing Rome with its biggest threat of means of expansion.
      It took three Punic Wars to wipe out the opposition of Carthage, which was finally destroyed by the Romans in 146BCE, leaving the way open for Rome to take total control of the Mediterranean.
      Reference used : Athildas Coel & Guy de la Bedoyere.

      By Kordas, based on Alvaro's work - This map, CC BY 3.0, Link

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