Mesopotamia is a very historical region of Western Asia situated within the River Tigris & the River Euphrates, in the Northern Part is the historical Fertile Crescent. The Sumerians & Akkadians, including Assyrians & the Babylonians, dominated Mesopotamia.
From the very beginning of written records, 3,100BCE, to the fall of Babylon in 539BCE, when the ancient settlement was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire. In 332BCE, Babylon fell to the Greeks & Macedonians lead by Alexander the Great, after the warrior's death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire.
In the 7th century BCE, the Persian & Medes kingdoms fell under the domination of the Assyria Empire, based in Northern Mesopotamia, under King Cyaxares, the Medes & Persians entered into an alliance with the Babylonian ruler Nabopolassar, as well as the fellow Scythians & Cimmerians, the coalition together attacked the Assyrian Empire.
The civil war ravaged the Assyrian Empire between 616 - 605BCE, thus freeing their respective people from the yoke of domination.
Phoenicia, from the ancient Greek, was a ancient Semitic-speaking Mediterranean civilisation that originated in the Levant, specifically the Lebanon, which in those days included Northern Israel & Southern Syria.
Its colonies later reached to the Western Mediterranean, such as Cadiz, in today's Spain and the most notable Carthage in North Africa. The Phoenician civilisation spread across the Mediterranean between 1,500 - 300BCE.
Reference used : Hacob Serkis & Beric Ychen.
"Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. It has been identified as having "inspired some of the most important developments in human history, including the invention of the wheel, the planting of the first cereal crops and the development of cursive script, mathematics, astronomy and agriculture."
"The Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire. It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC, and after his death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire."
Source #1: Wikipedia - Mesopotamia
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