This topic contains 12 replies, has 3 voices, and was last updated by Eyvisl Yngling .
2019-01-10 at 4:44 pm #2724
2019-09-16 at 10:37 pm #6730Eyvisl YnglingForum Editor@EyvislRank: Diety
2019-09-04 at 2:42 pm #6696BericForum Editor@beric_debenkahRank: Honorary Scribe
Text : 323BCE.
In the opening years of his reign, King Philip II of Macedon 359 – 336BCE, transformed the levy of his backwoods state into the largest and most efficient force in Greece. The discovery of gold deposits permitted the increase in size and the increase in efficiency stemmed from Philip’s refusal to accept two conventions of Greek warfare.
A Greek warfare that was responsible for its typical indecisive quality, the restrictions of armed campaigning to a recognised season and the siege technique to blockade. The Thracians & the Illyrians provided Philip with an inexhaustible supply of warring enemies and he fought them all year round.
Walled cities that defied him he assaulted with his newly trained armies, these town garrisons often fell into the hands of Philip, as early as 352BCE, when he annexed Thessaly, the established powers of Greece had their warning.
But the Greek nobility at this time were just intent in squabbling over the sanctuary of Delphi, the in-fighting they called The Sacred War, so divided and unable to agree Philip saw their weakness of forming an anti-Macedonian coalition.
By then, 338BCE, Philip was unstoppable. The combined Theban-Athenian army was crushed at The Battle of Chaeronea and the states of Greece forcibly enrolled in a Pan-Hellenic league that took its orders from Philip.
Reference used : Colin McEvedy.
2019-09-04 at 2:33 pm #6695ZiyiForum Editor@nebibitRank: Diety
2019-08-18 at 2:20 pm #6531ZiyiForum Editor@nebibitRank: Diety
2019-07-10 at 4:12 am #6167BericForum Editor@beric_debenkahRank: Honorary Scribe
The Bronze Age Or Greece : 2,700-1,100BCE.
The Bronze Age, the earliest recorded period in Greek history, during these years the first European civilisation appeared on the Island of Crete and became known as The Minoan Period, a time that was strange and wonderful and seems very alien to modern-day sensibilities. Civilisation soon sprang up in mainland Greece, and historians refer to this culture as The Mycenaean Period, around 1,300BCE something cataclysmic happened in Crete and The Minoan Period came to an end, the surviving boat-people then scattered over different parts of the Mediterranean.
The So-Called Dark Ages, – 1,100-900BCE, which historians almost abhor to use the expression, but it was a time went literacy was sparse and records rare, most Greek scholars describe the period in Greeks history as a time of travel, all the people who left mainland Greece after the Bronze Age travelled far and wide, a fledgling nation of new sea-farers, setting up new settlements in the near perfect climate of the Mediterranean, as a result for the Greek settlers diplomacy and fair trade became essential to these new town-ports.
Early Greece : 900-490BCE, this period was when Greece started to grow and expand, the hundreds of new communities and colonies that had been established between 1,100-900BCE grew into new vibrant societies known as City-States. These City-States had different forms of governments, but remarkably the market-town of Athens decided upon the system of democracy.
All these City-States soon faced major challengers, when the immense Persian Empire launched a series of attacks on the Greek mainland, because of their wealth and riches of trade, their shipping routes over the Mediterranean and their colonies getting to close to Persian interests.
The Classical Period : 490-350BCE, after dealing with the Persians, where some of the City-States joined forces, Athens and its flag of Democracy was growing, bring Greek citizens from other City-States, so much so the Athens soon possessed an Empire, not bad for a small market-town. The new money that the Greek Empire generated was responsible for some of the fabulous and exotic cultural the Ancient Greece is now famous for in modern-day.
Unfortunately Athen’s domination and democracy came to an end when the Peloponnesian War began with the rival City-State of Sparta, after the Athenian defeat, Athens declined influence and a can of worms developed between all the other Greek City-States and the ugliness of War-Lords raised their heads.
The Hellenistic Period : 350-150BCE, this is when the Macedonians arrived on the scene, Under King Philip II and his son Alexander the Great with the soul purpose of taking their revenge on Persia as mentioned in the Post-Heading.
Reference used : Katrina Pax & Dorothea Flores.
2019-07-10 at 3:48 am #6166BericForum Editor@beric_debenkahRank: Honorary Scribe
The Greek Islands & Beyond.
Although the Greek mainland is fairly small, other pieces of what historians considered to be ancient Greece were spread all over the Eastern Mediterranean, approximately 1,000 islands were regarded as part of Ancient Greece, as well as many other distant lands.
Euboia : The big peninsula that’s just off the Eastern coast of Greece, although the people who lived on this peninsula regarded their culture very different from mainland Greece.
The Cyclades : A big group of islands in the South, including places like Naxos, Paros, & Delos, the Greek mainlanders referred to these islands as ‘The Cyclades Circle’.
Asia Minor : The Western coast of modern-day Turkey, during the dark ages, migration from mainland Greece to Asia Minor in the hope of creating new Greek territories in Aeolia & Ionia.
Thrace : The area now known as Bulgaria, the ancient Greek military oppressed the native born here because of their warlike aggressive attitudes to strangers, however, the terrain was wild and mountainous, which was no problem to the Greeks.
The Islands of Crete, Rhodes & Cyprus : These were big an important islands for Greek trade, the native-born of the South-East developed their own cultures separate from the Greek mainland, and in the island of Crete, the Greek settlers found a more ancient civilisation than their own.
The Western Islands : An important string of islands to the West of mainland Greece, Corcyra, modern-day Corfu, Cephallenia, Ithaca, & Zekynthos. Trade routes and Greek business established on these four islands.
Other Islands : Of the 1,400 other islands, only about 250 were inhabited by humankind, the rest left to nature, however in Greek sea-faring mythology each island has a fascinating story to tell, but the most famous of these islands are Lemnos, Miletus, Samos & Lesbos all important in Greek mythology.
Reference used : Steve Bachelor & Manon Spiros.
2019-07-10 at 3:27 am #6165BericForum Editor@beric_debenkahRank: Honorary Scribe
Separating Ancient Greece.
Historians divide Greece in two at The Gulf of Corinth, the large body of water that runs through the middle of the region :
To the North, North of the Gulf was the larger part of mainland Greece, although the South was much more heavily populated, the biggest city settlement in this part of Greece was the historical Thebes and also located in this region was the sacred site of Delphi, the home of several oracles.
To the South, Southern Greece was divided in two by the Peloponnese mountain range, with the most famous settlements of Sparta, Olympia, Corinth, Argos, and to the North East, Athens.
Reference used : Steve Bachelor.
2019-07-10 at 3:12 am #6164BericForum Editor@beric_debenkahRank: Honorary Scribe
Locating Ancient Greece.
Ancient Greece was very spread out, which means that the Greek citizens ideas, people & events effected many parts and cultures around the Mediterranean and sometimes beyond as the Greeks ventured away from their beloved Mediterranean.
They made trade and cultural in roads into Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, North Africa, Libya and West Asia Minor, the most densely populated area was the land-mass known as Greece today.
It’s an area that is dominated by two things, the sea and very large mountain ranges, for the ancient Greeks, the mountain ranges meant that sections of the ancient country of Greece were very disconnected, hence the city-states and in-fighting, with people identifying themselves with local allegiance instead of nationality.
Reference used : Bernice Xenopoulos.
2019-07-10 at 3:00 am #6163BericForum Editor@beric_debenkahRank: Honorary Scribe
What did it mean to be Greek in the ancient world ?
Well the Greeks were great sailors and merchants who set-up trading centres all around the Mediterranean in the Iberian Peninsula, mostly Spain, in Southern Gaul, North Africa, Southern Italy, Turkey & The Aegean Seas. Of course the land-mass and scattered islands of Greece.
Furthermore, the Greeks of the ancient world didn’t consider themselves as national Greeks, rather they classified themselves as being citizens of the cities, towns & agricultural settlements of their birth, holding to being Greek in comparison to the foreign trade routes and ports they set-up in the Mediterranean.
So if an Athenian was talking to an Egyptian sailor he would call himself a Greek, but if the same Athenian was talking to a Corinthian sea-farer he would call himself an Athenian.
Reference used : Bryonie Pelkas.
2019-07-10 at 2:13 am #6162BericForum Editor@beric_debenkahRank: Honorary Scribe
The Greek Cultural Contribution.
Everybody in historian circles goes on about the Roman contribution and their massive advances in civilised life, yes the were responsible for some form of central heating, straight roads between settlements and the easy-to-understand Latin language compared to ancient Greek.
But the ancient Greeks who were pretty inventive too, and the amount of Greek settlement in Southern Italy that reflected and aided the fledgling Rome. The ancient Greeks are responsible for a fascinating number of creations and inventions.
Introducing metal coinage instead of market-bartering, fledgling democracy, recording history for future prosperity, designing bras for Olympians, political satire and musical poetry. While all these inventions help their Greek citizens, the Greeks greatest gift to humankind was civilisation.
Reference used : Cassia Papadopoulos.
2019-07-10 at 1:50 am #6161BericForum Editor@beric_debenkahRank: Honorary Scribe
The Ancient Greek Society & Culture.
For historians is endlessly fascinating, take Zeus, the Greeks’ most powerful deity, who could change himself into a bull & a swan, or a very handsome man to make love to beautiful mortal women, without his wife finding out. But the again, his wife was his sister !
The ancient Greeks thought that Planet Earth was an island surrounded by water, but they also understood the curvature of the Earth, observing ship’s masts gradually disappearing over the horizon.
The Greeks like sporting prowess which gave birth to The Olympic Games, and the greatest Olympians trained for these games on a yearly basis, the Greeks also had very elaborate religious cults that participated in strange rituals, that some historians see akin to the Celtic world.
Referenced used : Steve Bachelor & Clarissa Webb.
2019-07-09 at 3:06 pm #6150Eyvisl YnglingForum Editor@EyvislRank: Diety