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Text : 323BCE.
In the opening years of his reign, King Philip II of Macedon 359 – 336BCE, transformed the levy of his backwoods state into the largest and most efficient force in Greece. The discovery of gold deposits permitted the increase in size and the increase in efficiency stemmed from Philip’s refusal to accept two conventions of Greek warfare.
A Greek warfare that was responsible for its typical indecisive quality, the restrictions of armed campaigning to a recognised season and the siege technique to blockade. The Thracians & the Illyrians provided Philip with an inexhaustible supply of warring enemies and he fought them all year round.
Walled cities that defied him he assaulted with his newly trained armies, these town garrisons often fell into the hands of Philip, as early as 352BCE, when he annexed Thessaly, the established powers of Greece had their warning.
But the Greek nobility at this time were just intent in squabbling over the sanctuary of Delphi, the in-fighting they called The Sacred War, so divided and unable to agree Philip saw their weakness of forming an anti-Macedonian coalition.
By then, 338BCE, Philip was unstoppable. The combined Theban-Athenian army was crushed at The Battle of Chaeronea and the states of Greece forcibly enrolled in a Pan-Hellenic league that took its orders from Philip.
Reference used : Colin McEvedy & Beric Ychen.